ConcurrentHashMap in Java is introduced as an alternative of Hashtable in Java, which is a synchronized collection class, that makes the main difference between HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap which is one is non-synchronized , non-thread safe and not for use in Concurrent multi-threaded environment while ConcurrentHashMap is a thread-safe collection and intended to be used as primary Map implementation especially for multi-threaded and Concurrent environment. Apart from thread-safety, there are some subtle differences between HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap which we will see in this article. By the way, Difference between HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap as well as ConcurrentHashMap vs Hashtable are two popular core Java interview question, mostly asked on senior level Java programmers.
Difference between HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap in Java
In this section, we will see some more details about HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap and compare them on various parameters like thread-safety, synchronization, performance, ease of use etc.
1) As I said the earlier first significant difference between HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap is that later is thread-safe and can be used in a concurrent environment without external synchronization. Though it doesn’t provide the same level of synchronization as achieved by using Hashtable but it’s enough for the most practical purpose.
2)You can make HashMap synchronized by wrapping it on Collections.synchornizedMap(HashMap) which will return a collection which is almost equivalent to Hashtable, where every modification operation on Map is locked on Map object while in case of ConcurrentHashMap, thread-safety is achieved by dividing whole Map into different partition based upon Concurrency level and only locking particular portion instead of locking the whole Map.
3) ConcurrentHashMap is more scalable and performs better than Synchronized HashMap in the multi-threaded environment while in Single threaded environment both HashMap and ConcurrentHashMap gives comparable performance, where HashMap only slightly better.
In Summary Main difference between ConcurrentHashMap and HashMap in Java Collection turns out to be thread-safety, Scalability, and Synchronization. ConcurrentHashMap is a better choice than synchronized HashMap if you are using them as cache, which is the most popular use case of a Map in Java application. ConcurrentHashMap is more scalable and outperforms when a number of reader threads outnumber the number of writer threads.